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Les origines du cinéma Québecois

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Montréal est la métropole économique du Canada à l'invention du cinéma. Le 28 juin 1896, six mois seulement après la naissance officielle du cinématographe des Frères Lumière, Louis Minier et Louis Pupier présentent quelques unes des premières bandes filmées dans cette ville.

La première projection en Amérique du cinématographe Lumière a donc lieu à Montréal. Elle sera le début d'une tournée de 10 ans à travers le Québec pour ses opérateurs.

Projectionniste dès 1902, Léo-Ernest Ouimet ouvrira son premier cinéma commercial permanent en 1906 sur la rue Sainte-Catherine, le Ouimetoscope. C'est le début de l'exploitation organisée du cinéma au Québec.

Jusqu'en 1940, la structure de production demeure embryonnaire, avec des œuvres très inégales. Le Québec dépend encore à cette époque des capitaux étrangers pour se développer.

Les initiatives locales sont mal vues par les métropoles comme Paris, Londres et New York dont elles menacent l'influence. De plus, l'intérêt pour les questions culturelles est très variable au Québec, que ce soit au niveau de l'État ou de la société. Durant cette période, le cinéma est donc dominé par la production états-unienne, anglaise ou française.

La Seconde Guerre mondiale vient changer la donne, provoquant notamment l'industrialisation du pays, son développement, tout comme la montée d'un sentiment national, exacerbé par la propagande de guerre, et ce tant au Québec qu'au Canada anglophone.

Autre conséquence non négligeable de cette guerre et du blocus allemand, le Québec se voit coupé de son approvisionnement en films de langue française, puisque ceux-ci étaient essentiellement français.




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